Walther Bothe, German Physicist ( January 8, 1891 - February 8, 1957 )

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The Laboratory for Radioactivity consisted of only two rooms at the time; at a later date, when tests of radioactive substances became more extensive, it expanded into four rooms.~Walther Bothe

Time Two Four

Direction coupling between the various radiations generated in a nuclear reaction both with one another and with the initiating radiation can also be detected and measured by coincidences; this provides valuable information about the structure of the atomic nuclei.~Walther Bothe

Direction Information

In this case, the particle formed has correspondingly less energy, whereas the product nucleus passes into the ground state with emission of the quantity of energy saved as gamma radiation.~Walther Bothe

Energy Product Quantity

Many applications of the coincidence method will therefore be found in the large field of nuclear physics, and we can say without exaggeration that the method is one of the essential tools of the modern nuclear physicist.~Walther Bothe

Physics Tools Coincidence

Rossi was the first to describe another system working with valves in parallel; it has the advantage that it can easily be extended to coincidences between more than two events, and is therefore predominantly used today.~Walther Bothe

Today Events Working

The material particle nature of primary cosmic radiation has been confirmed, although the processes turned out to be extraordinarily more complicated than we had assumed.~Walther Bothe

Nature Complicated More

Strict conservation of energy in the elementary process had thus been confirmed also by a negative experiment.~Walther Bothe

Energy Process Negative

This result was confirmed by different researchers using various experimental arrangements.~Walther Bothe

Different Result Confirmed

To demonstrate this simultaneity is by no means trivial, because it may for example happen that the product nucleus always forms in an activated state at first.~Walther Bothe

May Product Happen

During this time I had the singular good fortune of being able to discuss the problem constantly with Einstein. Some experiments done at Einstein's suggestion yielded no decisively new result.~Walther Bothe

Time Good Problem